Crew unpacked the fresh fruit, opens Cygnus hatch

On Thursday morning 5:02 a.m, Commander Steve Swanson opened the hatch to Orbital Sciences Cygnus cargo vehicle, to begin unloading a half of science experiments, crew supplies, station hardware and even a bit of fresh food. Swanson joined Gerst to equalize the cabin pressure and the vestibule leading to Cygnus between the station and the cargo craft. NanoRacks module was the first item unloaded from Cygnus, it provides microgravity research with a low-cost and use of standardized "plug and play" modules.

“Just stunk my thumb into the skin of a fresh orange and the smell completely overwhelmed my senses. Didn’t know how much I missed real fruit.” shared these by Wiseman on twitter, when their unpacked a special treat aboard Cygnus-fresh fruit.

Lifetime achievement award to JPL director, Ed Stone


From 1972, Ed Stone is a project scientist of NASA's Voyager mission, and former director of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, California. On Wednesday, American Astronautical Society honored with a lifetime achievement award to ED Stone. Stone received with honor, "for sustained and extraordinary contributions to America's space programs, including innovative planetary missions in support of unnamed exploration of the solar system" said society. "This award is an extraordinary honor", said Stone.

This award was given for every 10 years on the occasion of the society’s anniversary; Stone received this award in Washington. Previously this award was taken by William H. Pickering (another former director of JPL) and Wernher von Braun (a pioneer in rocket development).

Between 1991 and 2001, Stone served as JPL director, during this period of time a number of missions were launched, all while Voyager 1 and 2 soared beyond planets and headed toward the boundary of the solar system.

Cygnus and Robonaut in the Space


On Wednesday at 6:36 a.m. EDT Cygnus was grappled in the space, as it flew within about 32 feet of the complex by the Steve Swanson. 57-foot Canadarm2 is controlled by Flight Engineer Alexander Gerst from robotics workstation inside the station's cupola. Wiseman helps his crewmates to capture and coordinate activities, orbital flying nearly 260 miles over northern Libya, at the time of capture. Canadarm 2 robotic arm helps to hold the Cygnus securely, the robotics officer at Mission Control in Houston remotely operated the arm to guide the cargo craft.

Flight Engineer Reid Wiseman monitored the Common Berthing Mechanism operations for first and second stage capture of the cargo ship, when the Cygnus in position, second stage captured at 8:36 a.m. EDT. After completing the captures, Wiseman removed the Center line Berthing Camera System. At afternoon Swanson spent his time on work, the installation of some upgrades for Robonaut 2 (the humanoid robot).
More information about Robonaut

Robonaut delivered to the station in May 2011 through STS-134 shuttle mission, including legs delivered to the station through SpaceX-3 cargo mission in April. He started his work on Wednesday to install new helmet pieces and replace Robonuat's shoulder and elbow covers, installing legs (It may take 2 additional days).

Two giant radiation belts – NASA’s Van Allen Probes orbit


Van Allen radiation belt contains inner is fairly stable and outer changes shape, size and composition. It suggests two-fold process; one is called mechanism which gives the particles an initial boost and other one is called electromagnetic wave known as Whistlers. Numerous theories tell where these energetic particles come from and have been developed. The first theory is that the Particles move slowly from one place to another, 4,00,000 miles or more, gathering energy along the way. While in second theory, increasing the particles speed through some mechanism, which already inhabiting that area of space.

In past Van Allen Probes known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP). It designed for understanding the sun's influence on Earth and also helps for studying the Earth's radiation belts on various scales of space and time. The instrument Van Allen Probes are the part of the broader LWS (Living With Star) program and also helps for measuring the charged particles that comprise the Earth's radiation belts.


For more information, visit
Van Allen Probes

Keep Aircraft on Schedule - TSS

TSS means Terminal Sequencing and Spacing, developed by NASA to help NextGen a reality, and it delivered to the FAA on July 14 during public occasion in nation's capital. It is designed to help controllers who work as a part of TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control), which is doughnut shaped volume of sky that extends outward about 35 miles and begins 5 miles from the airport.




By using TSS, Controllers gives the appropriate direction to the aircraft like- to speed up, slow down, or maintain current speed. The goal for TSS is to control the speed of the continuously descending aircraft to safely merge together at a point in the sky where they can be handed off  to an airport for their final clearance and approach to land.

 
John Robinson is a chief engineer for the TSS development at NASA's Ames Research Center in California, given a statement about TSS "TSS gives controllers the strategic information they need so that downstream merge works out easier". With the help of TSS, works in aircraft is easier to the controllers.

Astronaut has started work

German Flight engineer Alexander Gerst and Commander Steve Swanson, they ready to hold the grapple Cygnus on Wednesday at 6:39 a.m.EDT. On Monday morning Swanson started to do work on Advanced Colloids Experiment, for that he opened the Fluids Integrated Rack. Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) is designed to host investigations in areas such as wetting, gels, colloids and capillary action, including cooling and boiling. For study the behavior of microscopic particles in creams and gels, there is a experiment called Advanced Colloids Experiment-Microscopy-1 (ACE-M-1).

With the help of Reid Wiseman (NASA astronaut), Gerst work in the Kibo laboratory module because of set up sensors to measure airflow in the Japanese lab. Wiseman removed all the samples and swapped desiccant packs in a science freezer. In the Destiny laboratory’s Microgravity Science Glovebox, Reid Wiseman set up the Burning and Suppression of Solids experiment called combustion experiment.

Read more about Combustion experiment.

ANTARES rocket launch successful

Antares rocket successfully launched on Sunday (13-07-2014) at 12:52 pm, from NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia, U.S.A. This mission is the second cargo delivery flight to the station. Total amount spent for this mission is $1.9 million. This mission carries overall 3,300 pounds of supplies to the station, including crew food and supplies, hardware and scientific equipment and experiments. For research investigations Planet Labs of San Francisco developed, a flock of nanosatellites designed to make images of Earth. NASA’s Ames Research Center (Moffett Field, California) built a new experiment called TechEdSat-4; it’s used for satellite-based investigation. Another experiment called SPHERES by Ames, it contains some features like sensor, multiple cameras to enable 3d-mapping and finally a robotic navigation inside the space station.

Expedition 40 Commander Steve Swanson of NASA with the help of his partner Alexander Gerst (European Space Agency) is a flight engineer, will use the station’s robotic arm to take hold of Cygnus at 6:39 am on Wednesday. It will take one month to be filled with trash and burn up during reentry in Earth’s atmosphere.

For more information about Orbital-2 mission, visit
Orbital-2

To fly an airborne test bed instrument (MABEL) and ICESat-2


 Comparing in summer and winter, sea ice looks dramatically different. In these weekends, NASA ready to investigate the features of ice in Fairbanks, Alaska, with the help of Flying Laser Altimeter. NASA going to launches the ICESat-2; it will measure the elevation of Earth through the out pluses of green laser light and timing how long it takes individual photons to bounce off Earth’s surface and return. MABEL (Multiple Altimeter Beam Experiment) collects data with lasers and photon-detectors.

Thorsten Markus given a statement, "We need to give scientists data to enable them to develop algorithms that work during summer." He is a project scientist in ICESat-2 at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. With the help of ICESat-2 like data, we can study about the features like areas where snow has melted, pooling up in low spots of the sea ice or glaciers and also bare ice with no snow coverage.

For more information about ICESat-2, visit
http://icesat.gsfc.nasa.gov/icesat2/

Degradation Free Spectrometers

A new sounding rocket is ready to launch on 14 July, 2014 from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. This mission is used to measure the irradiance (total energy output). Leonid Didkovsky given a statement about the mission “Data observations from previous missions have provided significantly improved measurements of irradiance easily”. He is the principal investigator for the mission in University of Southern California in Los Angeles.

Degradation Free Spectrometers experiment helps to find the total energy of the extreme ultraviolet light coming from sun. This experiment was developed by Didkovasky and his team. two new instruments, one is called Optics-Free Spectrometer is used to detect the sun’s photons another one Dual Grating Spectrometer is used to separate the visible light from the extreme ultraviolet light with two stable.

NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft and STEREO



"The particles coming from the sun such as photons, electrons, protons, neutrons, gamma rays are to gather different kinds of information" said by David Lawrence. Charge particles from the sun (closer to Earth), we can observe easily, but it’s difficult to analyze their journey affected by magnetic fields. MESSENGER spacecraft is close as 28 million miles from the sun and 93 million miles from the earth, to detect the solar neutrons (Created in solar flares) near to the sun.

STEREO (Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory) provided useful observation of the burn with a sudden intensity. This mission is mostly helpful in solar observation. It consists of two space-based observations, one is a head o earth in the orbit and the other one is trailing behind. With this mission scientists will able to see the evolution and structure of solar storms.

Exo-brake (Smartphone and a small satellite with a de-orbiting device)


NASA's Ames Research Center located in Moffett Field, California. They’re going to launch new experiments into space aboard NASA's second Orbital Sciences Corporation Cygnus spacecraft. The agency's for second of eight planned cargo mission is $1.9 billion Commercial cargo resupply flight of the Orbital Science. Launching date is July 11, 2014 (Friday) at 10.40 am, launch coverage on NASA TV will begin at 10 am, it will arrive at the space station on Tuesday (July 15, 2014).

Smart SPHERES (Prototype):

SPHERES means Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient Experimental Satellites; it is one of the flying space robots. There using Google's "Project Tango" Smart SPHERES, because of 3-D sensor with multiple cameras. Smart SPHERES helps for 3-D mapping and navigation inside the space station. Smart SPHERES are developed and tested by Space Technology Mission Directorate at NASA Head quarters in Washington.

TechEdSat-4 (Autonomous):

Type of mission is technology. TechEdSat means "Technical Education Satellite". This mission built by San Jose State University students in partnership with Ames Research Center and AAC Microtec. The goal of this mission is to, develop the requisite technologies for on-demand sample return capability from the ISS, and perform re-entry test flights and hard ware’s validation.


PMBSS moving the telescope


PMBSS is used to holds the telescope's science instruments and also the 18 beryllium mirror-segments. Largest mirror in the telescope called primary mirror (the one starlight will hit first). It is designed to reduce the changes in the shape of the telescope, because when one side is hotter than the other side. The telescope is operated in the cold temperature with a range between -406 and -343 degrees Fahrenheit, the black plane must move less than 98 nanometers, i.e., approximately 1/1,000 the diameter of a human hair.

Even though its size is despite and complex, it is one of the most lightweight precision-alignment and the structure is ever designed and built. It measures roughly 24 ft tall by 19.5 ft wide by more than 11.5 ft deep and weighs only 190kgs (2,180 pounds). It supports a mission payload and instruments that weigh more than 3,150kgs (7,300 pounds).


Finally OCO-2 successfully launched


At 2.56 am .PDT (5.56 a.m. EDT) Wednesday, the spacecraft were successfully launched, to study about atmospheric carbon dioxide. The orbit launched in Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. The second stage of rocket is 429-mile (690-kilometer) orbit. OCO-2 is mainly used to locate the Earth's sources of and storage places for atmosphere carbon dioxide. Charles Bolden (NASA Administrator) given a quotation "Climate change is the challenge of our generation."

Why scientist used OCO-2?, this mission tells how long carbon dioxide level change in future and also change in concentration that effect earth's climate. After 45 days the operation will begin.


Titan's ice shell


By the use of Cassini mission, scientist found some data (Analyzed data). Inside the Titan, might (Are the Saturn's largest moon) be as salty as the Earth's Dead Sea. With the help of Cassini project, researchers presented a new structure for Titan. "We're finding the new mysterious to solve old ones." the quotes word are spoken by Linda Spillker.

The ocean in the Titan is extremely salty brine of water mixed with dissolved salts likely composed of chemicals like sulfur, sodium and potassium. The data of Cassini's indicates the thickness of Titan's ice crust it varies slightly from place to place.

A new binary or twin stars


The distance between two binary or twin stars is same at which Earth orbits the sun. While comparing with sun and planet host star, sun is not much dimmer. Earth (little colder) is not much colder than planet. Four international research team, Andrew Gould (Professor in the Ohio State University in Columbus), on July 4 their published the issue of the journal science.

Scott Gaudi (Professor of astronomy at Ohio State) said "This greatly expands the potential locations to discover habitable planets in future". OGLE-2013-BLG-0341LBb is a planet named by astronomers; it is called gravitational microlensing, by using this method "A planet is also present around the foreground star". With the help of telescope, it can easily study about OZLE (Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment), MOA (Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics).

Cygnus cargo spacecraft (Orbital-2 mission)


Spacecraft is scheduled to launch on July 11, 2014 at 1.40 p.m. E.D.T, in Mid-Atlantic Regional Spacecraft's Launch Pad 0A at NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. It is filled with more than 3,000 pounds of supplies, science experiments to expand the research capability of 40 crew members from aboard, spare parts, and hardware.

TechEdSat-4 is a satellite-related investigation (flock of nano satellite). It’s used for taking images of earth. The main region for building cargo is to conduct new science investigations to the only laboratory in microgravity.

Cygnus spacecraft will arrive at the space station on July 15, 2014, when the launch scheduled on July 11, 2014. The capture and installing stars on July 15, 2014 at 6.15 a.m.

Information about Eruptions by IRIS (Solar Observatory)


IRIS means Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph. A new solar observatory was launched into orbit around earth on June 27, 2013. IRIS observes the sun's atmosphere in low level, Interface region means moving constantly. IRIS helps for understanding the detailed images on particular area, even more turbulence and complexity than expected. By using this, we can easily understand how the solar material reaches million of degrees.

On all observation IRIS captures two kinds of data, it collects images and also data called spectra. Spectra are an important tool in IRIS arsenal to understand the interface region. Scientists easily measure the velocity, temperature and density of the solar material, it provides causes of eruptions.

50th Anniversary (The Civil Rights Act of 1964) for NASA

Lyndon Johnson (American President 1963-1969) signed into the law, most of the effect in civil rights legislation. Due to the outlawed discrimination in such areas like restaurants, employment, voting, public and education on the basis of some characteristics like race, color, religion, national origin.... etc.

Before the law was enacted, there is a change happen in workspace in the forefront. In 1964 January, their create a contractors group in Alabama to make sure African-American got space jobs. The first negro recruiter was "Charlie Smoot" hired by NASA.

Knowing about globe and they change over time by OCO-2 mission


OCO-2(Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2) is scheduled for Wednesday, July 2 at 5.56 am from Space Launch Complex 2 at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. The launch team operated properly during tests before the launch countdown, but it failed at final minutes. Their decided to replace the failed value with a spare and the system is being tested in preparation for Wednesday's launch attempt.

OCO-2 will produced the detailed picture of natural sources of carbon dioxide, and also their “sinks” places on Earth surface where carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere. By OCO-2 mission we know around the globe and how they change over time.

For more information about OCO-2, visit http://www.nasa.gov/oco2

The high-altitude balloon carrying the LDSD project



High-altitude balloon(Helium Balloon) launch occurred in Hawaiian island facility at 8.45 a.m.Their tested balloon and vehicle were about 1,20,000 feet over the Pacific Ocean at the time of the drop and it splashed down in the ocean at 11.35 a.m.

Mark alder is a project manager for LDSD at NASA's jet Propulsion Laboratory located in Pasadena, California. “The test vehicle worked good. After the result we met all of our flight objectives, have recovered all the the vehicles hardware and data recorders for future flights”.

He said "Our vehicle flew so well, by adding some extra credit points with the Supersonic inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator[SIAD]". SIAD is a large, first deceleration technology is deployed during the flight and second one is an enormous parachute, and the tam analyzing data on the parachute due to the test vehicle did not deploy as expected.

Dorothy Rasco given some text about NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate is " This entire effort was just fantastic work by the whole team and is a proud."

For more information about LDSD mission. 
 http://go.usa.gov/kzZQ
For More information Space Technology Mission Directorate.
http://www.nasa.gov/spacetech

Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 by NASA on July 1

NASA prepares to launch the first spacecraft to analyze the carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere on July 1 from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 is the second earth science mission launched by NASA

Carbon dioxide being the vital part of our carbon cycle has major impact on the climatic changes. Scientists have warned that carbon dioxide released by human activity like burning of fossil fuel and deforestation has disturbed the balance of natural carbon cycles.  A portion of Carbon dioxide emitted stays in the earth atmosphere and the remaining portion is observed by the ocean, but the location and identity of the natural land sinks believed to be absorbing the rest is not clearly understood.

The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) will clearly portrait the sources of carbon dioxide, the process that pulls out carbon dioxide from earth atmosphere. 

 Michael Freilich, director of NASA’s Earth Science Division in Washington SAYS, “With the OCO-2 mission, NASA will be contributing an important new source of global observations to the scientific challenge of better understanding our Earth and its future."

3 Powerful X-class Solar Flares in 2 days

Solar flare actually refers to the eruption of energy in the sun’s surface. In simple terms, it is the sudden flash of brightness in the sun layer. The radiations from flare are actually harmful to humans. The safest part is that these radiations cannot pass through the earth surface. But still if the radiations are more intense then it may disturb the atmospheric layer where communication signals travel. 

Recently on June 10, 2014 three X-class solar flares has erupted in 2 days and the images were clearly captured by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory. All the three flares have been emitted from the active region of the sun. 


The solar flares are represented as X1, X2. . X-class solar flare, X denotes the most intense flame and number denotes the strength of the flare. Higher number means more intense.
Forecasters are keeping a close eye on the Sun for more updates. 

Nasa seeks coders to follow asteroids

US space agency Nasa is seeking coders who could help thwart a global catastrophe by identify asteroids that may collapse into Earth. Its Asteroid Data Hunter contest will suggest $35,000 (£21,000) to programmers who can recognize asteroids capture by ground-based telescopes.The charming elucidation must increase the revealing rate and minimize the number of false positives.Scientists are progressively more work for be of assistance to make good judgment of measureless statistics sets.

The new enhanced asteroid hunt code must also be able to ignore imperfection in the figures and run on all computer systems."Protecting the planet from the intimidation of asteroid impact means first eloquent where they are," said Jenn Gustetic, decision-making of the programme.


"By opening up the search for asteroids, we are harnessing the potential of innovators and makers and citizen scientists everywhere to solve this global challenge."

Current asteroid detection is only tracking one percent of the estimated objects that orbit the sun, according to asteroid mining firm Planetary Resources, which is partnering with Nasa in the contest.Human curiosity Zooniverse is one of the leading online platforms for citizen scientists, working on a range of projects including classifying galaxies. In February it racked up one million volunteers.

"Nasa takes these detailed pictures but there is a lot of noise out there from stars and other things and we need to write code that can find patterns in the data," said Zooniverse team member Robert Simpson. "This is not necessarily Nasa's area of expertise. It is a technology problem rather than a space problem."He thinks that increasingly citizen scientists can contribute to important scientific discoveries and breakthroughs.

Keeping foods fresher for a long duration in space with misting systems

Even though there are many advancement in technology, keeping foods fresher in space for a long period has been impossible. Research has been going on to keep fresh fruits and vegetables for long-term in space. It has been found that spraying waters over fruits and vegetables keep them fresher for a long period. It’s a fact that if a plant or a food has more solute than the environment surrounding it then to achieve equilibrium state water diffuses into the cell.


Thus by routinely spraying the vegetables with water it keeps up their turgor pressure and keeps them nice and crisp for us to eat.


And this can be achieved by creating a food locker installed with misting systems. A misting system can be used a water sprayer and can help to keep food fresher for a long period.


Based on the above considerations, our research and development team at mistingsystems.net designed an extraordinary misting product that can be used in the food lockers used in space to keep foods fresher for a longer period. This misting product creates a tiny mist at regular intervals that work as a water sprayer to keep foods and vegetables fresh over a long term.


Infact the mist generated by this specially designed misting product preserves the foods from being getting spoiled.


This may sound ridiculous but in a recent test conducted it has been proved that the foods kept under this product remained fresh for more than three months. Now with this product our astronauts can have fresh and tastier food in space as we have at earth.


Misting Products: http://mistingsystems.net/products/


Misting Fans : http://mistingsystems.net/misting-fans/


Freshly discovered Asteroid 2013 TV135

Recently discovered asteroid 2013 TV135 made a close approach to Earth on Sept. 16, as soon as it came within about 4.2 million miles (6.7 million kilometers and the asteroid is originally expected to be about 1,300 feet (400 meters) in size and its orbit carries it as far out as concerning three quarters of the space to Jupiter's orbit and as close to the sun as Earth's orbit and open on Oct. 8, 2013, by astronomers working at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory in Ukraine to as of Oct. 14, asteroid 2013 TV135 is one of 10,332 near-Earth objects that have been discovered.

By means of only a week of clarification for an orbital period that spans nearly four years, its opportunity orbital path is still quite uncertain, however this asteroid could be back in Earth’s neighborhood in 2032 on the other hand, NASA’s Near-Earth Object Program Office states the possibility this asteroid could then impact Earth is only one in 63,000.

Dramatic Supersonic Shockwave Images by NASA

Elusive schlieren picture of supersonic shockwaves emanate from NASA F-15 and F/A-18 aircraft in the air at supersonic speed were captured during new pilot skill flights.

The images were collected by a twin telescope and digital camera system on the earth .Under a NASA Small Business Innovation investigate project. Schlieren photography is a method that enables imaging of airflow, with particular illumination making changes in air density—in this case the density of the shockwaves
"Our team was able to photograph truly stunning images presenting the shockwaves of full-scale supersonic aircraft in flight,” said Ed Haering, Dryden’s GASPS principal investigator.



“For innovative calm supersonic aircraft designs, computer simulation and wind tunnel test are used to replica how to reduce the volume of the sonic booms, but the simulations and wind tunnel test have challenge in precisely modeling the flow around engine inlet and tail regions,” Haering explained. "We can use these images to authenticate our computer simulations and wind tunnel tests, giving us confidence that we can properly design supersonic civil aircraft of the future. Then we will be clever to fly over land at about double the speed of current civil aircraft without bothering people on the ground," he added.

This dramatic schlieren picture of supersonic shockwaves loading from NASA Dryden’s F-15B airplane was taken while it was traveling at Mach 1.38 at 44,000 legs elevation during a GASPS journey. 

Engineers used a thumbs induce to personally click electronic pictures when the airplane approved at the front side of the sun. Later assessments will most likely use airplane GPS monitoring approved on to the GASPS system on the floor to instantly stimulate their shades for more accurate picture.

Previous schlieren digital photography used an intricate sequence of contacts, shiny backlighting, and other gadgets to catch supersonic shockwaves on movie as deeper or less heavy lines against high-contrast background scenes like the advantage of the sun. Editions of this ground-to-air strategy used in the Nineties required extremely accurate positioning of the optics as well.

In comparison, the GASPS venture uses just a telescope and a digicam, making the difficult factors of the work to be conducted post-flight using picture handling software. This enhanced method significantly calms the perfection required, with the post-mission electronic handling of the visuals applied to imagine the surprise trend styles.

Schlieren picture provides a better knowing of the place and comparative durability of supersonic shockwaves. This symbolizes another device in the increasing device kit of methods used by NASA scientists developed to define sound booms.

This newest venture carries on a long sequence of sound growth decrease research by NASA. Aug. 27 noticeable The Tenth birthday of the NASA/Northrop Grumman F-5E Formed Sonic Boom Business presentation (SSBD) designs' first decreased sound growth journey was Aug. 27, tagging another landmark in NASA and industry’s direction to reduced sound booms. A new NASA aeronautics book, “Quieting the Boom: the Former Sonic Boom Demonstrator and the Pursuit for Silent Supersonic Flight,” by Lawrence R. Benson information the venture.

NASA's Deep Impact' Spacecraft - Massive Problem Rotating Out of control

NASA’s Deep Impact spacecraft is in deep problem. The craft, famous for blast a projectile into the Comet Tempel 1, lost contact with Earth sometime between 11 August and 14 August. Recent instructions to put the craft in hibernation, or secure mode, were ineffective, and Deep Impact is now rotating out of control, says principal investigator Michael A’Hearn of the University of Maryland in College Park. The job was renamed Epoxi when it was extensive to view comets and stars with transiting exoplanets.
Engineers have traced the trouble to a software-communications glitch that rearranges the craft’s computer. They are now working on instructions that could bring Deep Impact back into process. They may try to converse with the spacecraft this weekend, but the team first has to figure out its most likely orientation and whether to transmit signal to the vehicle’s high-gain or low-gain antenna.

Mission scientists are race beside the clock because the craft’s battery rely on power provide by Deep Impact’s solar panels. If the panels on the wayward craft happen to be point in a way where they receive incomplete sunlight, the batteries could last for a few months. But if the panels are pointed away from the Sun, the batteries would die in just a few days. Once the batteries are gone, Deep Impact can no longer be revived. One casualty of the mishap is that scientists have not established any of the probable images the craft was listed to take in August of Comet ISON, the icy space rock that could make a spectacle in the inner Solar System this fall before diving into the Sun.

Celebrity regarding NASA Planet Looking Comes Lazy Using Cracked Pieces

NASA said Thursday that its celebrated planet-hunting Kepler spacecraft, which broke down in May when a reaction wheel that controls its pointing failed, could not be fixed and would never again search for planets around other stars.
The disappointing news brings to an end, for now, one phase of the most romantic of space dreams, the search for other Earths among the exoplanets of the Milky Way. NASA has already asked astronomers for ideas on how to use the hobbled spacecraft, whose telescope is in perfect shape.

Even as they mourned the end of Kepler, astronomers said its legacy would continue as they worked their way through a trove of data the spacecraft has gathered.

At last count, Kepler had discovered 3,548 possible planets, and 135 of them — some smaller than the Earth — have been validated by other observations, including earthbound telescopes. But hundreds or thousands more are in the pipeline, said William Borucki of NASA’s Ames Research Laboratory in Mountain View, Calif., Kepler’s originator and principal investigator.

NASA delivering 3d Printer

NASA is scheduled to be able to start globe's primary zero-G-ready 3d images computer printer directly into place future season, through its resupply mission to the Overseas Living space Place, making sure that pieces might be built on-demand inside place. Living space creation firm Manufactured in Space's custom 3d images computer printer could be the primary product to be able to production pieces from planet earth, scientists said.
The particular three dimensional Printing inside Zero-G Research will certainly validate the capability associated with ingredient creation inside zero-gravity. "Imagine a astronaut requiring to make a life-or-death restore for the Global Area Section, " explained Aaron Kemmer, CEO associated with Manufactured in Area for the firm's site. "Rather compared to intending that the essential parts along with resources usually are for the stop already, what if the actual parts could be three dimensional imprinted if they required these people? " explained Kemmer.

Within getting ready for your 2014 release, Made in Area examined any diverse variety of 3 dimensional producing technology with zero-gravity with 2011 and is also completing more testing this year. Most of these micro-gravity testing provide the first study which given into the developments for your 3 dimensional Art print try things out.

Your 3 dimensional Printing device is built specifically to handle the environmental difficulties connected with space in addition to works by using extrusion component making, which usually develops things level by level beyond polymers along with products.

Tips to buy sports car

Buying a car is not an easy task. It involves a lot of headache and when it comes for sport car the no way. Unlike other cars sport cars have their own reputation. So buying sports car is a little bit tedious job as compared to normal cars.
Here are few guidelines which can help you to buy best sports car:

If you have any models in your mind then go through them completely in websites. Compare the rates, quality and other factors.

Go for a good and reputed dealership if you are not much skilled about sports car.


Once you have finished your research and finalized your car carefully go through its quality terms and conditions.  

Visit the Chennai Salsa Congress to know more about the Discounts.

Astronauts sent to space station launches from Russia

A rocket was launched from Russia to space station there are 3 men is travelling in that rocket both from Russia they are also known as cosmonauts. Because the rocket is launching from Russia and the take off of the rocket is successful.
The names of astronauts who sent to the space station are Russia’s Oleg Novitskiy and evgeny Tarelkin and United States Kevin Ford. The time of rocket launch and the name of the space craft are TMA-06M spacecraft at the time of 10.51 GMT on Tuesday and Australian time at 9.51 pm from Russia’s the place of Baikonur cosmodrane in Kazakhstan. 
          
The Soyuz TMA-06M launched at the time of 2.51 pm the Moscow time the news will be reached to Russian space agency it is supposed by the surroundings of the Russia.

Soyuz Capsule Docks at Area Place with Worldwide Area Crew

Three jet pilots arrive at the Worldwide Area Place beginning Wednesday (July 17) for a four-month remain, providing the large revolving about outpost returning to its complete supplement of six spaceflyers.






The Soyuz space pills holding the three new crewmembers — NASA astronaut Sunita Williams, European cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and Japoneses spaceflyer Aki Hoshide — docked with the station at 12:51 a.m. EDT Wednesday (0451 GMT) after a two-day journey. The Soyuz released into orbit Weekend from Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.

"Everything is ideal," Malenchenko radioed Russia's Objective Management Middle in Korolev, just outside Moscow. Camcorders on the external of the place station taken amazing opinions of the Soyuz taking up to the revolving about lab with the shiny red World in the backdrop.

At docking time, the Soyuz TMA-05M spacecraft and area place were boating 251 kilometers (402 kilometers) over east Kazakhstan. The Soyuz left itself at an Earth-facing docking slot on the station's Russian-built Rassvet component, and the hatches linking the two spacecraft were started out at 3:23 a.m. EDT (0723 GMT).

The Russian-U.S.-Japanese team onboard the Soyuz arrive at the area place 37 decades ago to the day of the first truly worldwide area docking: the September 17 meet-up between a NASA Apollo spacecraft and European Soyuz 19 pills during the Apollo-Soyuz Analyze Venture in 1975. During that ancient test journey, NASA astronaut Tom Stafford shaken arms with Communist cosmonaut Alexei Leonov to concrete the groundwork of worldwide area collaboration that eventually led to the $100 million International Space Station in orbit these days.

Today, the area place is the biggest human-built framework in area and clearly noticeable to the unaided eye from the floor to experts who know when and where to look. Twelve to fifteen different nations and five area organizations comprising the Combined Declares, Italy, European nations, North america and Asia designed the large revolving about laboratory

NASA Welcomes Rocket Crafters and New Jobs to Florida

Good news and the prospect of additional jobs are arriving on Florida’s Space Coast at the speed of innovation. Last week, on the 50th anniversary of Kennedy Space Center, I joined Florida Senator Bill Nelson, Kennedy Space Center Director Bob Cabana, and officials from Lockheed Martin for the unveiling of the first Orion capsule that will carry our astronauts farther into space than any human has ever traveled. The work leading up to Orion’s first test flight in 2014 is expected to support at least 350 Space Coast jobs. This week, the Space Coast economy got another boost when Rocket Crafters, Inc. (RCI), a Utah-based company, announced plans to move its budding high-tech aerospace business to Brevard County. The company expects that by 2017-18, it will have about 1,300 highly skilled aerospace workers, including former space shuttle employees.

RCI holds licenses for advanced hybrid rocket and aerospace composite technologies, as well as proprietary hybrid rocket design and analysis software. The company plans to develop new suborbital flight technology that would enable the completion of an intercontinental journey in about one-sixth the time it takes a conventional airplane.
This is further evidence that the Space Coast is open for business and positioning itself for the next era of space exploration. In addition to Orion’s arrival at Kennedy Space Center, NASA has recently facilitated agreements with the Boeing Company, Craig Technologies and others to use Kennedy facilities and equipment. And SpaceX recently became the first commercial firm to launch a successful resupply mission from the Space Coast to the International Space Station.

A year after the retirement of NASA's space shuttles, the work force at Kennedy is remaking America's gateway to space. Over the past three years, President Obama has fought to invest almost $1.4 billion in NASA’s 21st Century Space Launch Complex and Exploration Ground Systems. 

As a result, a dynamic infrastructure is taking shape, one designed to host many kinds of spacecraft and rockets sending robotic spacecraft and people on America’s next adventures.

B612 Foundation To Announce First Privately Funded Deep Space Mission



Who: The B612 Foundation
What: Press Conference to Launch the B612 Foundation and Sentinel Space Telescope Mission-the first privately funded deep space mission.

When: Thursday, June 28, 2012 --- 8:30 AM – 11:00 AM (PT)

Where: Morrison Planetarium, California Academy of Sciences, 55 Music Concourse Drive, San Francisco, CA, in Golden Gate Park. (Pay Parking in CA Academy Garage)

Announcement: On June 28, 2012, the B612 Foundation will announce its plans to build, operate and launch the world’s first privately funded deep space mission–a space telescope to be placed in orbit around the Sun.  We will create the first comprehensive dynamic map of our inner solar system showing the current and future locations and trajectories of Earth-crossing asteroids, paving the way to protect the Earth from future impacts and opening up the Solar System to future exploration.  

The B612 Foundation  aims to build, launch, and operate the world’s first privately funded deep space telescope mission to create the first comprehensive dynamic map of our inner solar system, identifying the current and future locations and trajectories of Earth crossing asteroids. Mapping the great unknown of the inner solar system is the first step to opening up this next frontier.  The B612 Foundation believes that humanity can harness the power of science and technology to protect the future of civilization on this planet, while extending our reach into the solar system.

NASA Releases Workshop Data and Findings on Asteroid 2011 AG5

WASHINGTON -- Researchers anticipate that asteroid 2011 AG5, discovered in January 2011, will fly safely past and not impact Earth in 2040.

Current findings and analysis data were reported at a May 29 workshop at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., attended by scientists and engineers from around the world. Discussions focused on observations of potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs).

Observations to date indicate there is a slight chance that AG5 could impact Earth in 2040. Attendees expressed confidence that in the next four years, analysis of space and ground-based observations will show the likelihood of 2011 AG5 missing Earth to be greater than 99 percent.

Source: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/asteroids/news/asteroid20120615.html

NASA Satellite Measurements Imply Texas Wind Farm Impact on Surface Temperature

A Texas region containing four of the world's largest wind farms showed an increase in land surface temperature over nine years that researchers have connected to local meteorological effects of the turbines.

The land surface temperature around the west-central Texas wind farms warmed at a rate of .72 degrees Celsius per decade during the study period relative to nearby regions without wind farms, an effect most likely caused by the turbulence in turbine wakes acting like fans to pull down warmer air from higher altitudes at night, said lead author Liming Zhou at the University of Albany, State University of New York.

The results were published in the April 29 issue of Nature Climate Change. Zhou and colleagues studied land surface temperature data ranging from 2003 to 2011, from the MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instruments on NASA's Aqua and Terra satellites.

Land surface temperature measures the temperature of the Earth’s surface itself, as opposed to the air temperature readings used in daily weather reports. Across a broad landscape, land surface temperature depends closely on the land cover type and nature of the surface. In specific locations, land surface temperature varies widely from day to night while air temperature varies within a smaller range.

The warming observed by MODIS mostly occurred at night. In the Texas region studied, the land surface temperature after sunset typically cools faster than the air temperature. But as the wind turbines continued to turn, the movement brought warmer air to the surface and thus created a warming effect compared to non-wind farm regions. The researchers expected to see the reverse during the day – a slight cooling effect – but the data instead showed a small warming or negligible effect in daytime.

The warming estimate applies specifically to this particular region, and covers a time when wind farms were expanding rapidly, Zhou said. The estimate should not be considered directly applicable for other regions and landscapes, nor should it be extrapolated over a longer period of time, as the warming would likely plateau rather than continue to increase if no new wind turbines are added. The warming is also considered a local effect, not one that would contribute to a larger global trend.

"This is a first step in exploring the potential of satellite data to quantify the possible impacts of big wind farms on weather and climate," said Chris Thorncroft, a coauthor of the study and chair of the Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences department at University at Albany, State University of New York. "We are now expanding this approach to other wind farms and building models to understand the physical processes and mechanisms driving the interactions of wind turbines and the atmospheric boundary layer near the surface."

The U.S. wind industry has installed a total of 46,919 megawatts of capacity through the end of 2011 – representing more than 20 percent of the world’s installed wind power and about 2.9 percent of all U.S. electric power – and has added more than 35 percent of all new U.S. generating capacity in the past four years, according to the American Wind Energy Association and the Department of Energy. This added capacity during that timeframe is second only to natural gas, and more than nuclear and coal combined.

For more information visit http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/tx-wind-farm.html

NASA Releases New WISE Mission Catalog of Entire Infrared Sky

NASA unveiled a new atlas and catalog of the entire infrared sky today showing more than a half billion stars, galaxies and other objects captured by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission.

"Today, WISE delivers the fruit of 14 years of effort to the astronomical community," said Edward Wright, WISE principal investigator at UCLA, who first began working on the mission with other team members in 1998.

WISE launched Dec. 14, 2009, and mapped the entire sky in 2010 with vastly better sensitivity than its predecessors. It collected more than 2.7 million images taken at four infrared wavelengths of light, capturing everything from nearby asteroids to distant galaxies. Since then, the team has been processing more than 15 trillion bytes of returned data. A preliminary release of WISE data, covering the first half of the sky surveyed, was made last April.

The WISE catalog of the entire sky meets the mission's fundamental objective. The individual WISE exposures have been combined into an atlas of more than 18,000 images covering the sky and a catalog listing the infrared properties of more than 560 million individual objects found in the images. Most of the objects are stars and galaxies, with roughly equal numbers of each. Many of them have never been seen before.

WISE observations have led to numerous discoveries, including the elusive, coolest class of stars. Astronomers hunted for these failed stars, called "Y-dwarfs," for more than a decade. Because they have been cooling since their formation, they don't shine in visible light and could not be spotted until WISE mapped the sky with its infrared vision.

WISE also took a poll of near-Earth asteroids, finding there are significantly fewer mid-size objects than previously thought. It also determined NASA has found more than 90 percent of the largest near-Earth asteroids.

Other discoveries were unexpected. WISE found the first known "Trojan" asteroid to share the same orbital path around the sun as Earth. One of the images released today shows a surprising view of an "echo" of infrared light surrounding an exploded star. The echo was etched in the clouds of gas and dust when the flash of light from the supernova explosion heated surrounding clouds. At least 100 papers on the results from the WISE survey already have been published. More discoveries are expected now that astronomers have access to the whole sky as seen by the spacecraft.

"With the release of the all-sky catalog and atlas, WISE joins the pantheon of great sky surveys that have led to many remarkable discoveries about the universe," said Roc Cutri, who leads the WISE data processing and archiving effort at the Infrared and Processing Analysis Center at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. "It will be exciting and rewarding to see the innovative ways the science and educational communities will use WISE in their studies now that they have the data at their fingertips."

For more information visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/WISE/news/wise20120314.html

NASA's Swift Monitors Departing Comet Garradd

An outbound comet that provided a nice show for skywatchers late last year is the target of an ongoing investigation by NASA's Swift satellite. Formally designated C/2009 P1 (Garradd), the unusually dust-rich comet provides a novel opportunity to characterize how cometary activity changes at ever greater distance from the sun.

A comet is a clump of frozen gases mixed with dust. These "dirty snowballs" cast off gas and dust whenever they venture near the sun. What powers this activity is frozen water transforming from solid ice to gas, a process called sublimation. Jets powered by ice sublimation release dust, which reflects sunlight and brightens the comet. Typically, a comet's water content remains frozen until it comes within about three times Earth's distance to the sun, or 3 astronomical units (AU), so astronomers regard this as the solar system's "snow line."

"Comet Garradd was producing lots of dust and gas well before it reached the snow line, which tells us that the activity was powered by something other than water ice," said Dennis Bodewits, an assistant research scientist at the University of Maryland, College Park, and the study's lead investigator. "We plan to use Swift's unique capabilities to monitor Garradd as it moves beyond the snow line, where few comets are studied."

Comets are known to contain other frozen gases, such as carbon monoxide and dioxide (CO and CO2), which sublimate at colder temperatures and much farther from the sun. These are two of the leading candidates for driving cometary activity beyond the snow line, but phase transitions between different forms of water ice also may come into play.

C/2009 P1 was discovered by Gordon J. Garradd at Siding Spring Observatory, Australia, in August 2009. Astronomers say that the comet is "dynamically new," meaning that this is likely its first trip through the inner solar system since it arrived in the Oort cloud, the cometary cold-storage zone located thousands of AU beyond the sun.

Comet Garradd was closest to the sun on Dec. 23, 2011, and passed within 118 million miles (1.27 AU) of Earth on March 5, 2012. The comet remains observable in small telescopes this month as it moves south though the constellations Ursa Major and Lynx.

Although Swift's prime task is to detect and rapidly locate gamma-ray bursts in the distant universe, novel targets of opportunity allow the mission to show off its versatility. One of Swift's instruments, the Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) is ideally suited for studying comets.

For more information visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/swift/bursts/comet-garradd.html

Cassini Successfully Flies over Enceladus

These raw, unprocessed images of Saturn's moons Enceladus and Tethys were taken on April 14, 2012, by NASA's Cassini spacecraft.

Cassini flew by Enceladus at an altitude of about 46 miles (74 kilometers). This flyby was designed primarily for the ion and neutral mass spectrometer to analyze, or "taste," the composition of the moon's south polar plume as the spacecraft flew through it. Cassini's path took it along the length of Baghdad Sulcus, one of Enceladus' "tiger stripe" fractures from which jets of water ice, water vapor and organic compounds spray into space. At this time, Baghdad Sulcus is in darkness, but that was not an obstacle for another instrument, the composite infrared spectrometer, which can see features by their surface temperatures and which also took measurements during this flyby.

As soon as daylight passed into the spacecraft's remote sensing instruments' line of sight, Cassini's cameras acquired images of the surface. The wide-angle-camera image included in the new batch, taken from around the time of closest approach, has some smearing from the movement of the spacecraft during the exposure, but still shows the surface in vivid detail.

Cassini's cameras also imaged Enceladus' south polar plume at a high phase angle as the satellite appeared as a thin crescent and the plume was backlit.

After the Enceladus encounter, Cassini passed the moon Tethys with a closest approach distance of about 5,700 miles (9,100 kilometers). This was Cassini's best imaging encounter with Tethys since a targeted encounter in September 2005. The 2005 encounter, with a closest approach distance of about 930 miles (1,500 kilometers), provided the images of Tethys with the best resolution and captured views of the side of Tethys that faces Saturn in its orbit. This new encounter examined the opposite side of Tethys, providing some of the highest-resolution images of the side that faces away from Saturn. Cassini acquired a 22-frame mosaic of this side, which features the large impact basin named Odysseus. Scientists will use these new data in conjunction with images from previous encounters to create digital elevation maps of the moon's surface.

For more information visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/cassini/whycassini/cassini20120416.html

NASA GRACE Data Hit Big Apple on World Water Day


To highlight declines in the world's groundwater supplies, a new visualization of Earth's groundwater reserves, created in part with space data from the joint NASA/German Aerospace Center (DLR) Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, debuted on New York's Times Square on March 22, International World Water Day.

The 30-second animation, titled "Visualizing Seasonal and Long-term Changes in Groundwater Levels," will be on display several times each hour through April 22 on Times Square's massive Thomson Reuters and NASDAQ digital signboards. Viewers of the interactive animation are invited to use their mobile devices to submit their city and add a graph to the sign. The animation can be viewed at: http://vimeo.com/user10042778 .

Netherlands designer Richard Vijgen developed the animation using GRACE data analyzed by professor Jay Famiglietti, director of the UC Center for Hydrologic Modeling at the University of California, Irvine; and from United States Geological Survey data supplied by Leonard Konikow. Vijgen was the winning entry in an international design visualization competition sponsored by the organization HeadsUP!, in collaboration with Visualizing.org. Founded by digital media artist Peggy Weil, HeadsUp! challenges designers to visualize critical global issues and create a shared sign for the public square.

Groundwater is a critical, but often overlooked, natural resource. According to a U.N. report, more than 1.5 billion people around the world depend on groundwater for their drinking water. It comes from the natural percolation of precipitation and other surface waters down through Earth's soil and rock, accumulating in cavities and layers of porous rock, gravel, sand or clay. Groundwater levels respond slowly to changes in weather and can take months or years to replenish once pumped for irrigation or other uses.

Famiglietti's analyses show that groundwater is being depleted at alarming rates in many of the world's major aquifers. "The GRACE data set is exciting, because it gives us the first global pictures of Earth's changing freshwater," he said.

The twin GRACE satellites, which celebrated their 10th year in orbit this week, measure minute changes in Earth's gravity field by measuring micron-scale variations in the separation between the two spacecraft, flying in formation 137 miles (220 kilometers) apart in low Earth orbit. These variations in gravitational pull are caused by local changes in Earth's mass. Masses of water, ice, air and solid Earth can be moved by weather patterns, seasonal change, climate change and even tectonic events such as large earthquakes. GRACE was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

For more information visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/Grace/news/grace20120322.html

Icy Moons through Cassini's Eyes


These raw, unprocessed images of Saturn's moons Enceladus, Janus and Dione were taken on March 27 and 28, 2012, by NASA's Cassini spacecraft.

Cassini passed Enceladus first on March 27, coming within about 46 miles (74 kilometers) of the moon's surface. The encounter was primarily designed for Cassini's ion and neutral mass spectrometer, which "tasted" the composition of Enceladus' south polar plume. Other instruments, including the Cassini plasma spectrometer and composite infrared spectrometer, also took measurements.

Before the closest approach of this encounter, Cassini's cameras imaged the plume, which is comprised of jets of water ice and vapor, and organic compounds emanating from the south polar region. Later, the cameras captured a nine-frame mosaic of the surface of the moon's leading hemisphere as the spacecraft left the moon.

After the Enceladus encounter, Cassini passed the small moon Janus with a closest approach distance of 27,000 miles (44,000 kilometers). The planet was in the background in some of these views.

Early on March 28, the spacecraft flew by Dione at a distance of 27,000 miles (44,000 kilometers) and collected, among other observations, a nine-frame mosaic depicting the side of the moon that faces away from Saturn in its orbit.

All of Cassini's raw images can be seen at http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/photos/raw/

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena manages the mission for the agency's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations team is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo. JPL is a division of Caltech.

For more information visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/cassini/whycassini/cassini20120328.html

Barack obama suggests Soviets for ‘space’ on rocket defense talks

Not aware that a mic was producing him, Chief executive Obama requested confident Western Chief executive Dmitry Medvedev Wednesday for space until after Mr. Obama’s re-election promotion to settle on rocket immunity.

“On all these issues, but particularly rocket immunity, this, this can be settled, but it’s important for him to give me area,”
Mr. Obama informed Mr. Medvedev at the end of their 90-minute conference, seemingly mentioning inbound Western Chief executive Vladimir Putin.

Mr. Medvedev responded, “Yeah, I comprehend. I comprehend your concept about area. Space for you…”

“This is my last political election,” Mr. Obama said. “After my political election, I have more versatility.”

The Western innovator reacted, “I comprehend. I broadcast this information to Vladimir.”

The return was grabbed by mic of a Western writer as correspondents were permitted into the conference area for reviews by the two commanders. It was first revealed by ABC News, which said it confirmed the discussion. A California Times writer heard a part of the record that starts with Mr. Obama saying, “This is my last political election.”

The two commanders are in Seoul for a atomic protection peak relating to the brains of more than 50 countries. Mr. Obama and Mr. Medvedev were huddling close together in their specific seats when the discussion took place.

White Home deputy nationwide protection advisor Ben Rhodes, who joined the conference, at first said he just didn't listen to the return and can't thoughts on it. Within an hour, however, Mr. Rhodes released a declaration via email that said the U.S. “is dedicated to employing our rocket immune system, which we’ve regularly said is not targeted at Italy.”

“However, given the historical difference between the U.S. and Italy on this problem, it will devote some time to specialized perform before we can try to reach an contract,” Mr. Rhodes said. “Since 2012 is an political election season in both countries, with an political election and authority move in Italy and an political election in the U. s. Declares, it is clearly not a season in which we are going to achieve a cutting-edge. Therefore, Chief executive Obama and Chief executive Medvedev decided that it was best to advise our specialized experts to do the perform of better understanding our specific roles, offering area for ongoing conversations on rocket immunity collaboration going ahead.”

The picture of Mr. Obama putting off a difficult nationwide protection question due to re-election issues is the other of what the Bright Home suitable for this trip. Mr. Obama’s first event upon getting in Southern region korea on Saturday was to visit the Demilitarized Location splitting Northern and Southern region South korea for a photo-op of him looking across no-man’s land at a ahead Military declaration post.

Mr. Medvedev informed correspondents that he considers rocket immunity shares between the two countries “could be more active.”

“I believe we still have time; time has not run out,” Mr. Medvedev said. “And now we need to talk about and work on various factors on Western rocket immunity. Now, in my view, the come for conversations between specialized factors and, of course, we remain at our own roles, both the U. s. Declares and Western Federation.”

When he realized he was discussing for the mics, Mr. Obama said only, “We’ve got more perform to do between our two countries. Dmitry determined some areas of ongoing scrubbing — rocket immunity being an example. And what we’ve decided to is to make sure that our groups, at a specialized level, are in conversations about how some of these issues can be fixed.”

The U.S. and its NATO members are seeking a rocket immunity safeguard, while Italy things that it would bargain its protection. Mr. Rhodes said the U.S. has consistently informed the Soviets that the safeguard is not being developed as a immunity against Italy, and that the two countries should progress on a wide range of atomic weaponry issues rather than bog down over the safeguard problem.

NASA's Fermi Spots 'Superflares' in the Crab Nebula


The famous Crab Nebula supernova remnant has erupted in an enormous flare five times more powerful than any flare previously seen from the object. On April 12, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope first detected the outburst, which lasted six days.

The nebula is the wreckage of an exploded star that emitted light which reached Earth in the year 1054. It is located 6,500 light-years away in the constellation Taurus. At the heart of an expanding gas cloud lies what is left of the original star's core, a superdense neutron star that spins 30 times a second. With each rotation, the star swings intense beams of radiation toward Earth, creating the pulsed emission characteristic of spinning neutron stars (also known as pulsars).

Apart from these pulses, astrophysicists believed the Crab Nebula was a virtually constant source of high-energy radiation. But in January, scientists associated with several orbiting observatories, including NASA's Fermi, Swift and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, reported long-term brightness changes at X-ray energies.



"The Crab Nebula hosts high-energy variability that we're only now fully appreciating," said Rolf Buehler, a member of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) team at the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, a facility jointly located at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University.

Since 2009, Fermi and the Italian Space Agency's AGILE satellite have detected several short-lived gamma-ray flares at energies greater than 100 million electron volts (eV) -- hundreds of times higher than the nebula's observed X-ray variations. For comparison, visible light has energies between 2 and 3 eV.

On April 12, Fermi's LAT, and later AGILE, detected a flare that grew about 30 times more energetic than the nebula's normal gamma-ray output and about five times more powerful than previous outbursts. On April 16, an even brighter flare erupted, but within a couple of days, the unusual activity completely faded out.

"These superflares are the most intense outbursts we've seen to date, and they are all extremely puzzling events," said Alice Harding at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. "We think they are caused by sudden rearrangements of the magnetic field not far from the neutron star, but exactly where that's happening remains a mystery."

The Crab's high-energy emissions are thought to be the result of physical processes that tap into the neutron star's rapid spin. Theorists generally agree the flares must arise within about one-third of a light-year from the neutron star, but efforts to locate them more precisely have proven unsuccessful so far.

Since September 2010, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory routinely has monitored the nebula in an effort to identify X-ray emission associated with the outbursts. When Fermi scientists alerted astronomers to the onset of a new flare, Martin Weisskopf and Allyn Tennant at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., triggered a set of pre-planned observations using Chandra.

"Thanks to the Fermi alert, we were fortunate that our planned observations actually occurred when the flares were brightest in gamma rays," Weisskopf said. "Despite Chandra's excellent resolution, we detected no obvious changes in the X-ray structures in the nebula and surrounding the pulsar that could be clearly associated with the flare."

Scientists think the flares occur as the intense magnetic field near the pulsar undergoes sudden restructuring. Such changes can accelerate particles like electrons to velocities near the speed of light. As these high-speed electrons interact with the magnetic field, they emit gamma rays.

To account for the observed emission, scientists say the electrons must have energies 100 times greater than can be achieved in any particle accelerator on Earth. This makes them the highest-energy electrons known to be associated with any cosmic source. Based on the rise and fall of gamma rays during the April outbursts, scientists estimate that the size of the emitting region must be comparable in size to the solar system.

NASA's Fermi is an astrophysics and particle physics partnership managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., and developed in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy, with important contributions from academic institutions and partners in France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Sweden and the United States.

The Marshall Space Flight Center manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra's science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.

For more information visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/GLAST/news/crab-flare.html

NASA Finds Sea Ice Driving Arctic Air Pollutants

Drastic reductions in Arctic sea ice in the last decade may be intensifying the chemical release of bromine into the atmosphere, resulting in ground-level ozone depletion and the deposit of toxic mercury in the Arctic, according to a new NASA-led study.

The connection between changes in the Arctic Ocean's ice cover and bromine chemical processes is determined by the interaction between the salt in sea ice, frigid temperatures and sunlight. When these mix, the salty ice releases bromine into the air and starts a cascade of chemical reactions called a "bromine explosion." These reactions rapidly create more molecules of bromine monoxide in the atmosphere. Bromine then reacts with a gaseous form of mercury, turning it into a pollutant that falls to Earth's surface.

Bromine also can remove ozone from the lowest layer of the atmosphere, the troposphere. Despite ozone's beneficial role blocking harmful radiation in the stratosphere, ozone is a pollutant in the ground-level troposphere.

A team from the United States, Canada, Germany, and the United Kingdom, led by Son Nghiem of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., produced the study, which has been accepted for publication in the Journal of Geophysical Research- Atmospheres. The team combined data from six NASA, European Space Agency and Canadian Space Agency satellites; field observations and a model of how air moves in the atmosphere to link Arctic sea ice changes to bromine explosions over the Beaufort Sea, extending to the Amundsen Gulf in the Canadian Arctic.

"Shrinking summer sea ice has drawn much attention to exploiting Arctic resources and improving maritime trading routes," Nghiem said. "But the change in sea ice composition also has impacts on the environment. Changing conditions in the Arctic might increase bromine explosions in the future."

The study was undertaken to better understand the fundamental nature of bromine explosions, which first were observed in the Canadian Arctic more than two decades ago. The team of scientists wanted to find if the explosions occur in the troposphere or higher in the stratosphere.

Nghiem's team used the topography of mountain ranges in Alaska and Canada as a "ruler" to measure the altitude at which the explosions took place. In the spring of 2008, satellites detected increased concentrations of bromine, which were associated with a decrease of gaseous mercury and ozone. After the researchers verified the satellite observations with field measurements, they used an atmospheric model to study how the wind transported the bromine plumes across the Arctic.

The model, together with satellite observations, showed the Alaskan Brooks Range and the Canadian Richardson and Mackenzie mountains stopped bromine from moving into Alaska's interior. Since most of these mountains are lower than 6,560 feet (2,000 meters), the researchers determined the bromine explosion was confined to the lower troposphere.

"If the bromine explosion had been in the stratosphere, 5 miles [8 kilometers] or higher above the ground, the mountains would not have been able to stop it and the bromine would have been transported inland," Nghiem said.

After the researchers found that bromine explosions occur in the lowest level of the atmosphere, they could relate their origin to sources on the surface. Their model, tracing air rising from the salty ice, tied the bromine releases to recent changes in Arctic sea ice that have led to a much saltier sea ice surface.

In March 2008, the extent of year-round perennial sea ice eclipsed the 50-year record low set in March 2007, shrinking by 386,100 square miles (one million square kilometers) -- an area the size of Texas and Arizona combined. Seasonal ice, which forms over the winter when seawater freezes, now occupies the space of the lost perennial ice. This younger ice is much saltier than its older counterpart because it has not had time to undergo processes that drain its sea salts. It also contains more frost flowers -- clumps of ice crystals up to four times saltier than ocean waters -- providing more salt sources to fuel bromine releases.

Nghiem said if sea ice continues to be dominated by younger saltier ice, and Arctic extreme cold spells occur more often, bromine explosions are likely to increase in the future.

Nghiem is leading an Arctic field campaign this month that will provide new insights into bromine explosions and their impacts. NASA's Bromine, Ozone, and Mercury Experiment (BROMEX) involves international contributions by more than 20 organizations. The new studies will complement those of a previously conducted NASA field campaign, Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS), which is providing scientists with valuable data for studies of bromine.

For more information visit http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/bromine20120301.html